Art About Art Foundation will sponsor a series of 30 lectures held by Raffaele Martini Pandozy, Ph.D. (In the philosophies of art Education). There will be 2 lectures every Thursday, lasting 1 hour each followed by a 15 minute break and a 45 minute discussion including questions and answers on the topic being treated.
There are 2 major topics incorporated into one for this series: “TOWARD A PHENOMENOLOGY OF ART” and the presentation of the founder’s book OF ART AND ARTEOLOGY- The Reformation of the Concept of Art for a Better World.
“TOWARD A PHENOMENOLOGY OF ART” is a new sociological approach to the reality of the world and a new concept developed by the founder during his entire life spent on the philosophies of art and life. Today, the application of phenomenology can be found in just about every discipline of knowledge. Linguistics, Psychology, science, sociology, anthropology, law, etc., but it is still to come in the fields of art history and the criticism of art. The introduction to this concept will trace the philosophical schools from the Presocratics to Aristotle and to Leibniz, Kant, Hegel. Husserl and Martin Heidegger. The latter, it must be said, was a major influence in Dr.Pandozy’s work. He spent 8 years studying one of Heidegger’s books Being and Time. From Heidegger, Dr. Pandozy learned how to shape the image and the character of the contemporary artist. In his book, Heidegger made a very compatible existential, behavioral model called Dasein, which Dr. Pandozy simply used to rebuild the image of the contemporary artist. Accordingly, the contemporary artist must be “teleological,” dedicated to his or her cause and above all “authentic human being.
Presentation OF ART AND ARTEOLOGY –The Reformation of the Concept of Art for a Better World. The book, which took 45 years to complete, is a comprehensive phenomenological and hermeneutical, analytical, and synthetic study of art and life. It is divided into 12 Chapters and more than 2,600 pages. The Preface and Introduction alone count to 206 pages. The book is a journey through the formation of the new concept of art, beginning with the contemporary explanation and definitions of perception, consciousness, language, thought, method, aesthetics, science, history of art, criticism of art, anthropology, applied sociology of art, and Conclusion. The book comprises hundreds of citations. The bibliography supporting the author’s thesis counts 350 books and publications. This completes the overhaul of the notion of art and introduces a new existential approach, which is needed at this time and history, simply because the author firmly believes that the history of Modern and Post-modern art is disconnected from reality because it is merely biographical, ambiguous, and idiosyncratic, and in this fashion, cannot indefinitely move forward and bring some good to humanity. The author wants the world to know that the phenomenology of art exists as life itself. It will be the tool that helps the artist face reality, beyond the traditional metaphysical and esoteric approach still in vogue today, which during the last 200 years, confused the minds of artists and audiences, therefore, contributing little to build a sense of humanism toward a constructive anthropology and make this a better world to live.
The 14 Sessions to be announced.
The concept of these 2 hour lectures has been designed by the author of the book after the idea that “Art is life and life can be art.” Consequently, the author will introduce the applicable method of the “Phenomenology of art” developed during the course of writing his book and his intensive research in all fields of human knowledge. The author sees in the production of cognitive art a great tool in changing humanity. The book must therefore be introduced in schools and universities toward the formation of new kind of artists that will be active in society.
During the first hour of the first session, he will tackle with the general effects of cognitive knowledge on society and anthropology from the perspective of the disciplines mentioned above. The second hour he will introduce the particular nature and the qualitative potential of his method of ‘Phenomenology of Art.” The speaker will also point out with specific accuracy how this new approach of applying cognitive knowledge of art will arrive at changing the course of the history of art and produce the right kind of art for the sake of humanity.
1st Session to be announced.
1st Hour. Topic: Phenomenology and Phenomenology of art.
Phenomenology: In Husserl’s view, it is a descriptive and a transcendental method of eidetic reduction (epoche), or a science of the essential knowing of the qualities of phenomena (the things-in-themselves). It is an instrumental method for narrowing down the perception of things to their essential forms of existence. In addition, Heidegger ascribes to phenomenology the capacity to “uncover“ what would otherwise remain hidden through the causal chain of phenomena, and thus the capacity to structure a new ontology of being-in-the-world. This, in Heidegger’s view, is bringing being from a metaphysical to an existential dimension of meaning. In the study, the meaning of phenomenology is used more as a causal method to determine objectivity, and thus, in my opinion, resolving the Husserl-Adorno’s controversy of descriptive phenomenology versus epistemology.
This reflection has brought the author to conclude that phenomenology can apply in every field or science, art included. When applied to the arts, phenomenology is reduced from descriptive explanation of phenomena to causal scientific explanation of phenomena. More specifically, when applied to the neural chain of phenomena manifested in the production of thought, which makes the content of “intentionality,” it stands to signify the idea that the artist actually possesses the power to address the powerful linguistic message of art to change the world for the better.
2nd Hour. 2nd Topic: Hermeneutic and The Hermeneutics of Art.
Hermeneutic: An ancient term derived from the term Hermes, the messenger of the Gods. It stands for a method of interpretation and comprehension of texts. Under this method, all objects, books, works of art, and the world as a whole are texts, as well as language in need of interpretation. Text and context is the relation determining the interpretive space in which the text must be understood. The method seeks original, necessary, cultural, etymological, phenomenological meaning in all human expressions, human endeavors, and objects from the standpoint of intention, existence, history, substance, essence, purpose, value, finality, and so on, in their legitimate contexts of existential human validity.
The hermeneutics of Art rest essentially on the relation text-context and the fact that Modern art – (the art of tous va bien) has been “decontextualized” from its original and natural context of existential life-values and anthropology. For this we must go back to Aristotle’s “first principles” and to Heidegger’s human’s existential values of the ontology of being. (Please refer to Blog #2 published in the foundation’s website).
2nd Session to be announced.
1st Hour. Topic: Preface Scope of the Book, Method of research, Table of Contents
2nd Hour. Topic: Introduction to the Book.
3rd Session. To be announced.
1st Hour. Topic: Perception from Chapter 1.
Perception, as many philosophers have established, “is everything there is to know and apprehend about the qualities of things. It is apprehension of the qualities of objects, people, ideas, and concepts in experiential form and the establishing of their existence. It may be a simple and a complex experience beginning with an empirical cognitive thought that determines partial experience of sense data and understanding, inviting the mind and the senses of the perceiver to move toward the full apprehension of the object. After the initial experience, what is apprehended returns to be placed in the proper context and the subject experiences an increase of a cognitive cognition by what follows as reflective action of what has been deposited in memory. In the overall, perception remains an active combination of progressive apprehension enriching the sensuous capacity of the subject to apprehend finer and more complex data after continued repetitions of experience amounting toward establishing the reality of being of the object of perception and advancing new cognitive, physical and, sensuous data to be apprehended. It must be said that the phenomenology of perception depends always upon the progressive cognitive recognition affecting the object’s qualities and the sensuous response of the subject moving toward the formation of a perceptual consciousness.
Phenomenology of the perception of art in Husserl’s view, it is a descriptive and a transcendental method of eidetic reduction (epoche), or a science of the essential knowing of the qualities of phenomena (the things-in-themselves) embodied in the object. It is an intrinsic dynamic movement of phenomena from which an instrumental method is produced for narrowing down the perception of things to their essential forms of existence. In addition, Heidegger ascribes to phenomenology the capacity to “uncover“ what would otherwise remain hidden through the causal chain of phenomena, and thus the capacity to structure a new ontology of beings-in-the-world. Heidegger’s view to bring being from a metaphysical to an existential dimension of meaning serves the arts in concentrating on the reality of the world. In the study, the meaning of phenomenology is used in this sense – more as a causal method to determine objectivity, thus, resolving the Husserl-Adorno controversy of descriptive phenomenology versus epistemology.
2nd Hour. Topic: The Phenomenological and hermeneutical Perception of art.
The phenomenological and hermeneutical perception of art is a combination of phenomenological analysis and comparative evaluation from two open standpoints that involve the field of sociology and anthropology. In this chapter, these two standpoints are not discussed for all new cognitions must be implemented beforehand. The phenomenological analysis of perception though ultimately uncovers the notion of “intentionality.” Intentionality is according to Husserl, to arrive at the mental condition of the maker of the object (in our case the artist), who must have known where his or her attention was directed and be fully aware of his or her final end. The method of phenomenology thus is what can be achieved as objectivity of thought by the apprehension of the qualities determining the true existence of the object. When this notion is applied toward the history of art and the criticism of art, the result is of high quality and almost scientific judging from the point of view of determination of phenomena, which is a true scientific endeavor making these two disciplines standing on solid ground.
4th Session to be announced.
1st Hour. Topic: Consciousness from Chapter 2.
Consciousness is a constituted and organized body of sensuous, perceptual, cognitive, and experiential knowledge governing individual thought, action, and behavior. Some philosophers consider it as synonymous with Kantian Reason. Consciousness is more than awareness, as it includes the capacity to reflect, analyze, synthesize, discern, and evaluate all sensorial experiences so as to distinguish feelings and emotions from sensations and passions, in other words, it applies rational theoretical and practical methods of reason. It is always intentional and relational: intentional because the subject is fully aware of every moment of its reflecting action and directs attention to the full body of perceptual knowledge and experience of the object can offer, aiming toward newer perceptions and new realizations of judgments; moving such body of knowledge toward well controlled action and behavior; interacting with newer and greater knowledge and experience, before determining the nature and the other qualities of the object, in the sum, constituting a phenomenological causal relatedness with the object. In synthesis, consciousness, is a body of perceptual knowledge — contributing to a greater experiential consciousness — constituting an active temporal, causal force in its own right as an individual entity that can determine positive intersubjective changes in the world (as it was explained by Husserl and Heidegger). This interactive, intersubjective problematic is also treated implemented in Leibniz’ sociological monadology and treated in Chapter XI. It distinguishes an individual conscious monad from a community of monads bound by social consciousness. Consciousness, being synthesis and active organization of thought as well as sedimentation of the apprehended essential, experiential knowledge of earlier experiences of the object, is always a consciousness of something—i.e., logically expansive and qualitatively transcendental of itself (self-consciousness), which can become a fertile terrain for intuition and imagination.
2nd Hour. Topic: Conciousness of Art
Since art is part of life, consciousness of art is a pre-intentional constitution of all that life entertains as reality and factuality, plus the history of values that art contributes in so many ways. With this pre-intentional body of knowledge and experience, it is obvious that the artist cannot fail to produce important and significant objects of art. Constituting a consciousness of art means to appropriate the latest and more significant knowledge of the world, philosophical and scientific to be applied to the conceptual structure of the work of art. In general, this means to re-contextualize what has been de-contextualized by previous negative political conditions, general ignorance or other negative forces, such as personal and impersonal vicissitudes, that may have diverted the logical, rational concept of art. However, the consciousness of art always maintain its progressive and rational predisposition of higher reason to overcome its own ambiguities and contradiction toward a conceptual and perceptual evolution of the idea of art as it applies in society. The artist’s main concern is, therefore, to place the same intention toward the evolution of the history of art and anthropology as a final end. The understanding that art is a human concept in need of reflection and advancement is obviously taken apriorily in this sociological endeavor. The historical, psychological and sociological ends are well explained throughout the entire excursus. Art, given the latest scientific findings offers complex cognitive experiences that enrich cellular and genetic intelligence, which, in ultimate analysis, helps the evolution of humanity. This is probably the latest consideration that demands unlimited support and reformation of the entire system of support and art education.
5th Session to be announced.
1st Hour. Topic: Language from Chapter 3.
Language: A conventional or unconventional signification, codification, symbolization manifestation or abstraction of human substance embodied in signs, symbols and concepts whether formal or informal, modal or non-modal, etc.. It is manifested by causation: intentionally or non-intentionally, as sense or nonsense manner, the same as being ontological or psychological denoting true etymological meaning (logos), or mere abstractions- connoting similarities of expressions. From a general perspective, all manifestations and expressions affecting our senses that carry meaning can be explained as language: writing, speaking, movement composition, bodily expressions, etc. From a physiological neural standpoint, every linguistic stimulus that affects our senses and the mind results ultimately in cognition and perception and conscious modification for the mind, which is able to assign meaning to it and build a contextual specificity. Otherwise, stimuli are often confused with sensations, emotions, and all sorts of other physical stimuli and responses. David Hume (1711-1776) is the source of the basic knowledge of linguistic expressions and impressions, but Husserl brings the notion of them to a phenomenological status. When they originate in the body, the mind just recognizes them, like the raw feelings of pleasure and pain; when they originate or enter the mind, the same must be treated rationally. Ferdinand De Saussure the father of “constructivism” distinguishes between “signifier and signifies” and builds two different philosophies that will assign particular specificity. Analytical philosophy of language also deal with interpretation of linguistic usage— all notions that are treated in this elaborate chapter. However, it is the writer’s contention that in every linguistic form, the mind must apply rational thinking in order to identify and make some sense of the linguistic elements. Linguistic expressions or impressions can be treated conventionally with logical and syntactical rules or otherwise. Conversely, whether acting upon the body or upon the mind, once experienced, the linguistic elements are recorded in the memory field, and they will bear more or less definite referential identity, which can mingle with complex psychological language. Some linguistic philosophers, like Levi-Strauss believe that language is responsible directly and indirectly with for the outcome of anthropology. Directly or indirectly this criterion is true and according to the writer’s conception of language, the latter deserves a much greater argument especially aiming at the finality of language.
2nd Hour. Topic: The Language of Art.
All general linguistic notions apply to Art as expression and as impression at the originating at the conceptual origins and at the receiving ends. All human language can be art, but only if its meaning and values reflect the original conceptual structure demanded, such as, substantial form and content, signification, originality o uniqueness, composition, relatedness, contextuality and referential historicality. Considering that our lives revolve or implement some form. The nature of language requires signification, which is logically preceded by concepts. Then the other important linguistic components concern the various manifestations of “intentionality,” which are all conscious because the subject producing linguistic expression manifests language as an exercise of the will. Language of art must be intentional, not accidental. One can unconsciously stumble into multiple meaning and content, but cannot participate in the life of his or her idea. Husserl speaks of “lived experiences” as something formulated by an independent will as a result of well-conceived structural fashion reflecting the character and the ideology of the subject. Good Art must be considered a fully lived experience. Only in this way art expressions are to be considered fully “lived.” Language of art can be experimental, but after every experiment, reflection and analysis must follow and new conceptual manifestations must take form. The artist, in a way, must consider him or herself a researcher, especially if he or she relies on accidents. Experimenting with language and leaving the outcomes on their own waiting for some novel interpretation to arise from other sources. This method is not “lived experience” because the intrinsic meaning of the action may remain incomplete and concealed for time to come.
6th Session to be announced.
1st Hour. Topic: Phenomenology of Conscious Behavior from Chapter 4.
Conscious behavior of the body and of the mind entertains the idea of possessing all the faculties of the mind and of the body working together harmoniously as a single apparatus and toward a single purpose. The term to be used in this context is “presentness.” The terms used by Heidegger to describe this condition “presentness and present-at-hand stand as a constitution of being in the world, which means being present with all capacities of conscious knowing. It implies potential being and contemporariness of being within the reality of the world—that is, being present before the object or the world with the full power of the conscious will, which activates changes; the capacity to act with the power of knowledge or interpret the object from the standpoint of the consciousness of the world and with the finitude of a “now-temporality,” which means to possess a knowledge current with world issues. The notion of “Present-at-Hand: (German: vorhanden, presence-at-hand: Vorhandenheit) (in contrast to the ready-to-hand“ locution, which is merely looking at or observing something in preparation for action) assumes a consequent disposition of body and mind and must always follow the notion of presence and existence. In seeing an entity as present-at-hand, allows the beholder to be concerned only with the bare facts of a thing or a concept, as they are presented, but in order to theorize about them, one must take into consideration all that preceded in chapter 1, 2 and 3, which has been treated according to plans. This way of seeing equals to taking an interest in being concerned with a totality of existence as it may hold true for Heidegger’s Dasein, its history and accountability of existence. This attitude is often described as existing in neutral space without any particular mood or subjectivity. However, for Heidegger the matter is not completely detached or neutral because it remains active , overwhelmed by mood as part of the metaphysics of presence that tend to level all things down. One must note that through his writings, Heidegger sets out to accomplish the destruktion (see above) . The metaphysics of presence involves discussion of Aristotelian problems concerning the existence and immortality of the soul, which Heideggere tries to avoid. Presence-at-hand is not the way things in the world are usually encountered, which is only revealed as a deficient or secondary mode, e.g., when a hammer breaks, it loses its usefulness and appears as merely there, present-at-hand. When a thing is revealed as present-at-hand, it stands apart from any useful set of equipment but soon loses this mode of being present-at-hand, becoming something that must be repaired or replaced.
2nd Hour. Topic: Phenomenology of Conscious Artistic Behavior.
We shall see that this topic will stay with us throughout the completion of the chapters to come of this analytical excursus because will continue to exist in future generations, as our notion of culture and natural History will continue its course in perpetuity. Conscious behavior is the product of constant behavior between who I am as an artist and a social individual and the way I see the world, which depends upon my substantial capacity and potentiality of being, of who I am and who I will be as a citizen of the world. Artistic presentness, namely, being present in every museum of the world or being represented by numerous galleries around the world when the idea of art is pervaded by common and wide spread ignorance or is deprived of natural human values as in many cases of contemporary actuality. This comment is valid until we allow ignorance in art to supersede knowledge and wisdom even at the highest levels of government. Those people with the political power of funding, should direct their attention and allocate financial support in areas of true humanistic development. Humanism, as was intended in the middle ages is the key of substantial ’presentness.’